Introduction to Intellectual History:
The Idea of Community in Western Thought
In Keywords, the critic Raymond Williams suggests that what is most notable about the term community is that “unlike all other terms of social organization (state, nation, society, etc.) it seems never to be used unfavourably, and never to be given any positive opposing or distinguishing term.” It is therefore unsurprising that community has figured prominently in Western thinking about our bonds to and relations with others, whether in political and social theory, religious thought, or the modern disciplines of sociology and psychology. However, the sense of proximity or closeness that often gives community its positive connotation also suggests a problematic dimension of the idea: in order to sustain itself, a community must define who is to be included in—and excluded from—its boundaries, definitions that are grounded in particular notions of reason, faith, tradition, or shared experience, among other possibilities.
This course will explore the idea of community through an historical and critical examination of the works of canonical figures in the Western intellectual tradition, as well as critical reflections from prominent theorists who have challenged this tradition from within. Rather than striving for comprehensiveness, we will focus on key turning points in the idea of community and the historical crises out of which they often arose. Throughout, we will consider how specific conceptions of truth have figured into attempts to define, construct, and contest community and its limits.
We will study not only the major contours of Western thought and its critique, but also develop the conceptual and methodological tools of the discipline of intellectual history. We will read closely and discuss primary texts and develop our interpretive and analytical skills through a variety of structured writing assignments. Lectures will provide historical and methodological frameworks through which these voices from the past can be engaged as partners in dialogue. Paradoxically, it is by situating these figures in their historical contexts that their concerns might be found to resonate with our own.
Instructor: Teaching Assistant:
Nicolaas P. Barr Clingan Emily Hall
Padelford B-101 Smith 104C
Office hours: M 2:00-3:00 Office hours: F 12:30-1:20
Lectures: T/Th, 10:30-12:20, Thompson 134
Sections: F, 10:30-11:20 (AA), Smith 307
F, 11:30-12:20 (AB), Electrical Engineering Building 031
Course Reader (available at RAMS Copy Center, 4144 University Ave NE)
Plato. Symposium. Translated by Robin Waterfield. Oxford and New York: Oxford
University Press, 1994.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Essential Rousseau. Translated by Lowell Bair. New York:
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Translated and edited by James
Strachey. Introduction by Christopher Hitchens. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Co., 2010.
Active Participation in Class Discussions 20%
Response Papers 30%
In-Class Peer Review Assignment for Midterm Paper 10%
Midterm Paper 15%
Final Paper 25%
- Participation: class discussions will take place in both the lecture and section meetings. In order to participate, you must bring the course reader and/or assigned book to all class meetings.
- Response papers: beginning with Plato, each assigned reading will be accompanied by a study question. These questions will be designed to help you develop your understanding of the readings prior to each lecture (and adhere to the reading schedule).
- Submission: Your responses will be submitted via Canvas by 7:00 PM the evening prior to each class for informal review by the instructor and TA. You should also bring a digital or hard copy of your response to class, which will serve both as a discussion reference for your thoughts on the material and a space to annotate, correct, revise, and expand your interpretations. Following each lecture meeting, you will have until Sunday at 11:59 PM to edit your original submission in Canvas.
- Purpose: studies have found that writing greatly improves comprehension and retention. Writing is therefore not a separate academic practice, but rather an integral part of the learning process. There are no exams for this course, so your portfolio of response papers will form a cumulative record of your engagement with the course material. Consistent engagement with the material and improvement over the course of the quarter will be rewarded.
- Structure: the study question for each reading will ask you to synthesize your understanding of the reading in relation to the themes of the course. In order to do this successfully, you must provide one or two brief quotations from the text and analyze them, demonstrating how the text supports your interpretation.
- Grading: Each paper will be awarded 0-3 points according to the quality of the response and, if applicable, the level of intellectual reflection evident in the revision process:
- 0 = incomplete
- 1 = off-topic or underdeveloped; insufficient textual evidence
- 2 = successfully responds to the question; provides and analyzes textual evidence
- 3 = responds to the question insightfully; provides close textual analysis that supports a clear interpretive claim or argument
Although it may be possible to write an excellent response paper without making substantial revisions, in most cases, you will need to revise your original submission in light of insights gained from the lectures and class discussions.
- Portfolio assessment: the response papers are worth a total of 30 points. You must complete at least one response paper per week, but you can earn extra points for completing both response papers, up to a maximum of four points per week. For example, if you receive a two on your first paper, you can earn two points for the second paper; if you receive a three on your first paper, you can earn one point for the second paper. If you complete all of the response papers, you could receive 100% credit for this component of your grade.
- Midterm paper: you will describe a community of which you are a member in a substantially meaningful sense and analyze the ways in which the relations among members are structured. We will spend one full lecture period doing a peer review excercize. Participation is mandatory and will factor significantly into your grade. You will receive more information about this assignment in a few weeks.
- Final paper: after receiving feedback from the TA about your midterm paper, you will build upon it using some of the figures, ideas, and texts from the course. This paper will ask you to sythesize and apply your learning to your personal experiences. Again, you will receive the details of the assignment later in the course.
- Extra credit: the UW History Department is offering an evening lecture series called “The Great War and the Modern World.” You can earn a small amount of extra credit by attending one or more lectures and writing a response paper that explains the main argument of the lecture and analyzes how it intersects with the themes of our course. The amount of extra credit given will be made at the discretion of the instructor and TA at the end of the course; this option should not be thought of as a substitute for the course assignments. Student tickets are $5 per lecture or $15 for the series. See: http://www.washington.edu/alumni/learn/2014history.html
We are all responsible for maintaining a classroom environment that is conducive to learning. Please be on time and turn off cell phones and related electronics. You are responsible for checking your official UW email account on a daily basis; any communications sent to the class by the instructor or teaching assistant regarding the course (such as changes to assignments or due dates) will be considered binding.
Students from either course designation (HIST or CHID) may access two dedicated writing centers:
The UW History Writing Center (Smith 020; firstname.lastname@example.org) offers individual appointments with the writing center director, an experienced instructor in the History
Department. Advance appointments are recommended, and drop-in appointments are available on a first-come, first-served basis. See: http://depts.washington.edu/history/centers-resources/history-writing-center
The Pol S/JSIS/LSJ/CHID Writing Center (Gowan 111; 206-616-3354) is staffed by undergraduate and graduate peer tutors. Office hours are M-Th, 9:40-4:30 and F, 9:30-2:30. Appointments are recommended, and drop-in hours are 1:15-close every day. See: http://depts.washington.edu/pswrite/
Plagiarism and Academic Honesty:
Copying and pasting or paraphrasing language from the Internet or other sources and turning it in as your own is considered plagiarism. Students who plagiarize will receive no credit for the plagiarized assignment, there will be no opportunity to re-submit the assignment, and the plagiarism will be reported to the UW Academic Conduct Committee with supporting documentation. The consequences of appearing before this committee when there is a clear case of plagiarism are quite serious. For more information, refer to the UW official plagiarism policy: http://depts.washington.edu/pswrite/plag.html.
Course Schedule (subject to change)
Note: Readings are to be prepared for the date on which they are listed.
9/25 Week 1
Thursday: Course Overview; The Idea of Community
In class: Ross Douthat, “The Age of Individualism”
Read: Frederic Morton, “The Seductive Catastrophe”
9/29-10/3 Week 2
Tuesday: What is Intellectual History? Introduction to Plato
Read: Raymond Williams, “Community,” Martin Jay, “European Intellectual History and the Specter of Multiculturalism,” and skim Mark K. Smith, “Community”
Thursday: Plato’s Context and Philosophical Project
Read: Republic (excerpts)
10/6-10/10 Week 3
Tuesday: Eros, Logos, and the Grounding of Community
Read: Symposium, Introduction, pp. xi-xxi and pp. 3-41
Thursday: Plato to St. Augustine: The Metaphysics of Christian Community
Read: finish Symposium
10/13-10/17 Week 4
Tuesday: The Reformations: Defining Communities of Faith
Read: St. Augustine, City of God (excerpts), and Martin Luther, “On Governmental Authority”
Thursday: The Enlightenment: Towards a Universal Community?
Read: Montesquieu, The Persian Letters (excerpt), and Immanuel Kant, “Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Intent”
10/20-10/24 Week 5
Tuesday: Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Modern “Society”
Read: Rousseau, “Discourse on Inequality”
Thursday: Rousseau’s Vision of Political Community
Read: Rousseau, “The Social Contract,” Books I-II
Due: Midterm Paper Draft (submitted via Canvas by 11:59 PM)
10/27-10/31 Week 6
Tuesday: Peer Review Workshop
Read: Rousseau, “The Social Contract,” Books III-IV
Thursday: Rousseau and Mary Wollstonecraft: Gender and Community
Read: Wollstonecraft, “Vindication of the Rights of Woman” (excerpt)
11/3-11/7 Week 7
Tuesday: G. W. F. Hegel: From Negative Liberty to Ethical-Political Community
Read: Hegel, Lectures on the Philosophy of History (excerpts)
Due: Midterm Paper (submitted via Canvas by 11:59 PM)
Thursday: Karl Marx: Labor and the Making of Universal Humanity
Read: Marx, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (excerpts)
11/10-11/14 Week 8
Tuesday: Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber: The Analysis of Communal Forms and Social Structures
Read: Tönnies, Community and Society (excerpts) and Weber, “Types of Solidary Social Relationships”
Thursday: Sigmund Freud: The Limits of Rationality and the Demands of the “Soul”
Read: Freud, Civilization and its Discontents, pp. 21-88
In class: Friedrich Nietzsche, “The Madman”
11/17-11/21 Week 9
Tuesday: Freud: Psychic Life and the Demands of Culture
Read: finish Civilization and its Discontents
Thursday: The Frankfurt School: Dialectic of Enlightenment
Read: Theodor W. Adorno, “Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda”
11/24-11/28 Week 10
Tuesday: Frantz Fanon: Race and Recognition
Read: Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks (excerpt)
Th/F: No class—Thanksgiving holiday
12/1-12/5 Week 11
Tuesday: Michel Foucault: Critique and the Refashioning of Community
Read: Foucault, “What is Revolution?”
Read: Judith Butler, Giving an Account of Oneself (excerpt)
12/8 Due: Final Paper (submitted via Canvas by 11:59 PM)